Published on in Vol 20, No 9 (2018): September

Patient and Consumer Safety Risks When Using Conversational Assistants for Medical Information: An Observational Study of Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant

Patient and Consumer Safety Risks When Using Conversational Assistants for Medical Information: An Observational Study of Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant

Patient and Consumer Safety Risks When Using Conversational Assistants for Medical Information: An Observational Study of Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant

Journals

  1. Miner A, Laranjo L, Kocaballi A. Chatbots in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. npj Digital Medicine 2020;3(1) View
  2. Tudor Car L, Dhinagaran D, Kyaw B, Kowatsch T, Joty S, Theng Y, Atun R. Conversational Agents in Health Care: Scoping Review and Conceptual Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(8):e17158 View
  3. Sezgin E, Militello L, Huang Y, Lin S. A Scoping Review of Patient-Facing, Behavioral Health Interventions with Voice Assistant Technology Targeting Self-management and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors. SSRN Electronic Journal 2019 View
  4. Kocaballi A, Berkovsky S, Quiroz J, Laranjo L, Tong H, Rezazadegan D, Briatore A, Coiera E. The Personalization of Conversational Agents in Health Care: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(11):e15360 View
  5. Gaffney H, Mansell W, Tai S. Conversational Agents in the Treatment of Mental Health Problems: Mixed-Method Systematic Review. JMIR Mental Health 2019;6(10):e14166 View
  6. Miner A, Shah N, Bullock K, Arnow B, Bailenson J, Hancock J. Key Considerations for Incorporating Conversational AI in Psychotherapy. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2019;10 View
  7. Mavropoulos T, Meditskos G, Symeonidis S, Kamateri E, Rousi M, Tzimikas D, Papageorgiou L, Eleftheriadis C, Adamopoulos G, Vrochidis S, Kompatsiaris I. A Context-Aware Conversational Agent in the Rehabilitation Domain. Future Internet 2019;11(11):231 View
  8. Park S, Choi J, Lee S, Oh C, Kim C, La S, Lee J, Suh B. Designing a Chatbot for a Brief Motivational Interview on Stress Management: Qualitative Case Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(4):e12231 View
  9. Schachner T, Keller R, v Wangenheim F. Artificial Intelligence-Based Conversational Agents for Chronic Conditions: Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(9):e20701 View
  10. Masina F, Orso V, Pluchino P, Dainese G, Volpato S, Nelini C, Mapelli D, Spagnolli A, Gamberini L. Investigating the Accessibility of Voice Assistants With Impaired Users: Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(9):e18431 View
  11. Rehman U, Chang D, Jung Y, Akhtar U, Razzaq M, Lee S. Medical Instructed Real-Time Assistant for Patient with Glaucoma and Diabetic Conditions. Applied Sciences 2020;10(7):2216 View
  12. Picard C, Smith K, Picard K, Douma M. Can Alexa, Cortana, Google Assistant and Siri save your life? A mixed-methods analysis of virtual digital assistants and their responses to first aid and basic life support queries. BMJ Innovations 2020;6(1):26 View
  13. Boczar D, Sisti A, Oliver J, Helmi H, Restrepo D, Huayllani M, Spaulding A, Carter R, Rinker B, Forte A. Artificial Intelligent Virtual Assistant for Plastic Surgery Patient's Frequently Asked Questions. Annals of Plastic Surgery 2020;84(4):e16 View
  14. Chen J, Lyell D, Laranjo L, Magrabi F. Effect of Speech Recognition on Problem Solving and Recall in Consumer Digital Health Tasks: Controlled Laboratory Experiment. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(6):e14827 View
  15. Cerda Diez M, E. Cortés D, Trevino-Talbot M, Bangham C, Winter M, Cabral H, Norkunas Cunningham T, M. Toledo D, J. Bowen D, K. Paasche-Orlow M, Bickmore T, Wang C. Designing and Evaluating a Digital Family Health History Tool for Spanish Speakers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019;16(24):4979 View
  16. Gunn C, Maschke A, Bickmore T, Kennedy M, Hopkins M, Fishman M, Paasche-Orlow M, Warner E. Acceptability of an Interactive Computer-Animated Agent to Promote Patient-Provider Communication About Breast Density: a Mixed Method Pilot Study. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2020;35(4):1069 View
  17. Kocaballi A, Quiroz J, Rezazadegan D, Berkovsky S, Magrabi F, Coiera E, Laranjo L. Responses of Conversational Agents to Health and Lifestyle Prompts: Investigation of Appropriateness and Presentation Structures. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(2):e15823 View
  18. Bickmore T, Zhang Z, Reichert M, Julce C, Jack B. Promotion of Preconception Care Among Adolescents and Young Adults by Conversational Agent. Journal of Adolescent Health 2020;67(2):S45 View
  19. Chattopadhyay D, Ma T, Sharifi H, Martyn-Nemeth P. Computer-Controlled Virtual Humans in Patient-Facing Systems: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(7):e18839 View
  20. Sezgin E, Militello L, Huang Y, Lin S. A scoping review of patient-facing, behavioral health interventions with voice assistant technology targeting self-management and healthy lifestyle behaviors. Translational Behavioral Medicine 2020;10(3):606 View
  21. Mehl A, Bergey F, Cawley C, Gilsdorf A. Syndromic Surveillance Insights from a Symptom Assessment App Before and During COVID-19 Measures in Germany and the United Kingdom: Results From Repeated Cross-Sectional Analyses. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2020;8(10):e21364 View
  22. Militello L, Sezgin E, Huang Y, Lin S. Delivering Perinatal Health Information via a Voice Interactive App (SMILE): Mixed Methods Feasibility Study. JMIR Formative Research 2021;5(3):e18240 View
  23. Vaidyam A, Linggonegoro D, Torous J. Changes to the Psychiatric Chatbot Landscape: A Systematic Review of Conversational Agents in Serious Mental Illness: Changements du paysage psychiatrique des chatbots: une revue systématique des agents conversationnels dans la maladie mentale sérieuse. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2021;66(4):339 View
  24. Carlin A, Logue C, Flynn J, Murphy M, Gallagher A. Development and Feasibility of a Family-Based Health Behavior Intervention Using Intelligent Personal Assistants: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Formative Research 2021;5(1):e17501 View
  25. Yang S, Lee J, Sezgin E, Bridge J, Lin S. Clinical Advice by Voice Assistants on Postpartum Depression: Cross-Sectional Investigation Using Apple Siri, Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, and Microsoft Cortana. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2021;9(1):e24045 View
  26. Bérubé C, Schachner T, Keller R, Fleisch E, v Wangenheim F, Barata F, Kowatsch T. Voice-Based Conversational Agents for the Prevention and Management of Chronic and Mental Health Conditions: Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(3):e25933 View
  27. Rigamonti L, Estel K, Gehlen T, Wolfarth B, Lawrence J, Back D. Use of artificial intelligence in sports medicine: a report of 5 fictional cases. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021;13(1) View
  28. Shezan F, Hu H, Wang G, Tian Y. VerHealth. Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies 2020;4(4):1 View
  29. KOH M, XIE Q, WONG L, YAP K. Quality assessment of digital voice assistants on information provided in eating disorders and coexisting depression. Minerva Psychiatry 2021;62(1) View
  30. Griffin A, Xing Z, Mikles S, Bailey S, Khairat S, Arguello J, Wang Y, Chung A. Information needs and perceptions of chatbots for hypertension medication self-management: a mixed methods study. JAMIA Open 2021;4(2) View
  31. Ermolina A, Tiberius V. Voice-Controlled Intelligent Personal Assistants in Health Care: International Delphi Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(4):e25312 View
  32. Palanica A, Fossat Y. Medication Name Comprehension of Intelligent Virtual Assistants: A Comparison of Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, and Apple Siri Between 2019 and 2021. Frontiers in Digital Health 2021;3 View
  33. Briggs G, Williams T, Jackson R, Scheutz M. Why and How Robots Should Say ‘No’. International Journal of Social Robotics 2022;14(2):323 View
  34. Hocking J, Oster C, Maeder A. Use of conversational agents in rehabilitation following brain injury, disease, or stroke: a scoping review protocol. JBI Evidence Synthesis 2021;19(6):1369 View
  35. Mavropoulos T, Symeonidis S, Tsanousa A, Giannakeris P, Rousi M, Kamateri E, Meditskos G, Ioannidis K, Vrochidis S, Kompatsiaris I. Smart integration of sensors, computer vision and knowledge representation for intelligent monitoring and verbal human-computer interaction. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 2021;57(2):321 View
  36. Luengo-Polo J, Conde-Caballero D, Rivero-Jiménez B, Ballesteros-Yáñez I, Castillo-Sarmiento C, Mariano-Juárez L. Rationale and Methods of Evaluation for ACHO, A New Virtual Assistant to Improve Therapeutic Adherence in Rural Elderly Populations: A User-Driven Living Lab. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021;18(15):7904 View
  37. Budler L, Gosak L, Stiglic G. Review of artificial intelligence‐based question‐answering systems in healthcare. WIREs Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 2023;13(2) View
  38. Kocaballi A, Sezgin E, Clark L, Carroll J, Huang Y, Huh-Yoo J, Kim J, Kocielnik R, Lee Y, Mamykina L, Mitchell E, Moore R, Murali P, Mynatt E, Park S, Pasta A, Richards D, Silva L, Smriti D, Spillane B, Zhang Z, Zubatiy T. Design and Evaluation Challenges of Conversational Agents in Health Care and Well-being: Selective Review Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(11):e38525 View
  39. Edwards K, Jones R, Shenton D, Page T, Maramba I, Warren A, Fraser F, Križaj T, Coombe T, Cowls H, Chatterjee A. The Use of Smart Speakers in Care Home Residents: Implementation Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(12):e26767 View
  40. Vemuri A, Heintzelman M, Waad A, Mauriello M, Decker K, Dominick G. Towards Dynamic Action Planning with user preferences in Automated Health Coaching. Smart Health 2023;28:100389 View
  41. Schillings C, Meissner D, Erb B, Schultchen D, Bendig E, Pollatos O. A chatbot-based intervention with ELME to improve stress and health-related parameters in a stressed sample: Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial. Frontiers in Digital Health 2023;5 View
  42. Bickmore T, Ólafsson S, O'Leary T. Mitigating Patient and Consumer Safety Risks When Using Conversational Assistants for Medical Information: Exploratory Mixed Methods Experiment. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(11):e30704 View
  43. Shan Y, Ji M, Xie W, Lam K, Chow C. Public Trust in Artificial Intelligence Applications in Mental Health Care: Topic Modeling Analysis. JMIR Human Factors 2022;9(4):e38799 View
  44. Calisto F, Nunes N, Nascimento J. Modeling adoption of intelligent agents in medical imaging. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 2022;168:102922 View
  45. Shafei H, Tan C. Do smart speaker skills support diverse audiences?. Pervasive and Mobile Computing 2022;87:101716 View
  46. Gillies A, Smith P. Can AI systems meet the ethical requirements of professional decision-making in health care?. AI and Ethics 2022;2(1):41 View
  47. Wang R, Lv H, Lu Z, Huang X, Wu H, Xiong J, Yang G. A Medical Assistive Robot for Telehealth Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Development and Usability Study in an Isolation Ward. JMIR Human Factors 2023;10:e42870 View
  48. Rahmanti A, Yang H, Bintoro B, Nursetyo A, Muhtar M, Syed-Abdul S, Li Y. SlimMe, a Chatbot With Artificial Empathy for Personal Weight Management: System Design and Finding. Frontiers in Nutrition 2022;9 View
  49. González A, Geiskkovitch D, Young J. Say what you want, I’m not listening!. i-com 2023;22(1):19 View
  50. Hesse B, Kwasnicka D, Ahern D. Emerging digital technologies in cancer treatment, prevention, and control. Translational Behavioral Medicine 2021;11(11):2009 View
  51. Kannampallil T, Ronneberg C, Wittels N, Kumar V, Lv N, Smyth J, Gerber B, Kringle E, Johnson J, Yu P, Steinman L, Ajilore O, Ma J. Design and Formative Evaluation of a Virtual Voice-Based Coach for Problem-solving Treatment: Observational Study. JMIR Formative Research 2022;6(8):e38092 View
  52. Soubutts E, Ayobi A, Eardley R, McNaney R, Cater K, O'Kane A. Amazon Echo Show as a Multimodal Human-to-Human Care Support Tool within Self-Isolating Older UK Households. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2022;6(CSCW2):1 View
  53. Arnold A, Kolody S, Comeau A, Miguel Cruz A. What does the literature say about the use of personal voice assistants in older adults? A scoping review. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology 2024;19(1):100 View
  54. Shan Y, Ji M, Xie W, Qian X, Li R, Zhang X, Hao T. Language Use in Conversational Agent–Based Health Communication: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(7):e37403 View
  55. Davida Z, Kliestik T. Chatbots by business vis-à-vis consumers: A new form of power and information asymmetry. SHS Web of Conferences 2021;129:05002 View
  56. Eagle T, Blau C, Bales S, Desai N, Li V, Whittaker S. “I don’t know what you mean by `I am anxious'”: A New Method for Evaluating Conversational Agent Responses to Standardized Mental Health Inputs for Anxiety and Depression. ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems 2022;12(2):1 View
  57. Keller R, Hartmann S, Teepe G, Lohse K, Alattas A, Tudor Car L, Müller-Riemenschneider F, von Wangenheim F, Mair J, Kowatsch T. Digital Behavior Change Interventions for the Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Market Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(1):e33348 View
  58. Schick A, Feine J, Morana S, Maedche A, Reininghaus U. Validity of Chatbot Use for Mental Health Assessment: Experimental Study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2022;10(10):e28082 View
  59. Chua A, Pal A, Banerjee S. AI-enabled investment advice: Will users buy it?. Computers in Human Behavior 2023;138:107481 View
  60. Brewer R, Pierce C, Upadhyay P, Park L. An Empirical Study of Older Adult’s Voice Assistant Use for Health Information Seeking. ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems 2022;12(2):1 View
  61. Srivastava B. Did chatbots miss their “Apollo Moment”? Potential, gaps, and lessons from using collaboration assistants during COVID-19. Patterns 2021;2(8):100308 View
  62. Alloatti F, Bosca A, Di Caro L, Pieraccini F. Diabetes and conversational agents: the AIDA project case study. Discover Artificial Intelligence 2021;1(1) View
  63. Yang K, Zhang T, Ananiadou S. A mental state Knowledge–aware and Contrastive Network for early stress and depression detection on social media. Information Processing & Management 2022;59(4):102961 View
  64. Calisto F, Nunes N, Nascimento J. Modeling Adoption of Intelligent Agents in Medical Imaging. SSRN Electronic Journal 2022 View
  65. Han R, Todd A, Wardak S, Partridge S, Raeside R. Feasibility and Acceptability of Chatbots for Nutrition and Physical Activity Health Promotion Among Adolescents: Systematic Scoping Review With Adolescent Consultation. JMIR Human Factors 2023;10:e43227 View
  66. Birkun A, Gautam A. Dr. Google’s Advice on First Aid: Evaluation of the Search Engine’s Question-Answering System Responses to Queries Seeking Help in Health Emergencies. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 2023;38(3):345 View
  67. Birkun A, Gautam A. Large Language Model (LLM)-Powered Chatbots Fail to Generate Guideline-Consistent Content on Resuscitation and May Provide Potentially Harmful Advice. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 2023;38(6):757 View
  68. Avila F, Boczar D, Spaulding A, Quest D, Samanta A, Torres-Guzman R, Maita K, Garcia J, Eldaly A, Forte A. High Satisfaction With a Virtual Assistant for Plastic Surgery Frequently Asked Questions. Aesthetic Surgery Journal 2023;43(4):494 View
  69. Griffin A, Khairat S, Bailey S, Chung A. A chatbot for hypertension self-management support: user-centered design, development, and usability testing. JAMIA Open 2023;6(3) View
  70. Sun J, Zhang S, Hou M, Sun Q, Cao F, Zhang Z, Tang G, Wang X, Geng L, Cui L, Chen Z. Who can help me? Understanding the antecedent and consequence of medical information seeking behavior in the era of bigdata. Frontiers in Public Health 2023;11 View
  71. Almaghrabi S, Clark S, Baumert M. Bio-acoustic features of depression: A review. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control 2023;85:105020 View
  72. Chin H, Song H, Baek G, Shin M, Jung C, Cha M, Choi J, Cha C. The Potential of Chatbots for Emotional Support and Promoting Mental Well-Being in Different Cultures: Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e51712 View
  73. Brady J, Livingston N, Sawdy M, Yeksigian K, Zhou S, Bickmore T, Simon S, Rubin A. Development and Evaluation of a Relational Agent to Assist with Screening and Intervention for Unhealthy Drinking in Primary Care. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science 2023;8(4):432 View
  74. Cheng Z, Shen L, Zhu M, Guo J, Fang M, Liu L, Du B, Tao D. Prescribed Safety Performance Imitation Learning From a Single Expert Dataset. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 2023;45(10):12236 View
  75. Richards D, Miranda Maciel P, Janssen H. The Co-Design of an Embodied Conversational Agent to Help Stroke Survivors Manage Their Recovery. Robotics 2023;12(5):120 View
  76. Munn L, Magee L, Arora V. Truth machines: synthesizing veracity in AI language models. AI & SOCIETY 2023 View
  77. Sarfaraz S, Khurshid Z, Zafar M. Use of artificial intelligence in medical education: A strength or an infirmity. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences 2023;18(6):1553 View
  78. Birkun A, Gautam A. Instructional support on first aid in choking by an artificial intelligence-powered chatbot. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2023;70:200 View
  79. Beyeler M, Légeret C, Kiwitz F, van der Horst K. Usability and Overall Perception of a Health Bot for Nutrition-Related Questions for Patients Receiving Bariatric Care: Mixed Methods Study. JMIR Human Factors 2023;10:e47913 View
  80. Bond R, Mulvenna M, Potts C, O’Neill S, Ennis E, Torous J. Digital transformation of mental health services. npj Mental Health Research 2023;2(1) View
  81. Land J, Pavlik E, Ueland E, Ueland S, Per N, Quick K, Gorski J, Riggs M, Hutchcraft M, Llanora J, Yun D. Evaluation of Replies to Voice Queries in Gynecologic Oncology by Virtual Assistants Siri, Alexa, Google, and Cortana. BioMedInformatics 2023;3(3):553 View
  82. Brewer R. Understanding voice‐based information uncertainty: A case study of health information seeking with voice assistants. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 2023 View
  83. Ding H, Simmich J, Vaezipour A, Andrews N, Russell T. Evaluation framework for conversational agents with artificial intelligence in health interventions: a systematic scoping review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2024;31(3):746 View
  84. Liao W, Liu Z, Dai H, Xu S, Wu Z, Zhang Y, Huang X, Zhu D, Cai H, Li Q, Liu T, Li X. Differentiating ChatGPT-Generated and Human-Written Medical Texts: Quantitative Study. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e48904 View
  85. Yılmaz İ, Doğan L. Talking technology: exploring chatbots as a tool for cataract patient education. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2024:1 View
  86. Jiang Z, Huang X, Wang Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Luo X. Embodied Conversational Agents for Chronic Diseases: Scoping Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024;26:e47134 View
  87. Jeyaraj S, T. R. Covid based question criticality prediction with domain adaptive BERT embeddings. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 2024;132:107913 View
  88. Lang S, Vitale J, Fekete T, Haschtmann D, Reitmeir R, Ropelato M, Puhakka J, Galbusera F, Loibl M. Are large language models valid tools for patient information on lumbar disc herniation? The spine surgeons' perspective. Brain and Spine 2024;4:102804 View
  89. Zhan X, Abdi N, Seymour W, Such J. Healthcare Voice AI Assistants: Factors Influencing Trust and Intention to Use. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2024;8(CSCW1):1 View
  90. Borna S, Gomez-Cabello C, Pressman S, Haider S, Sehgal A, Leibovich B, Cole D, Forte A. Comparative Analysis of Artificial Intelligence Virtual Assistant and Large Language Models in Post-Operative Care. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 2024;14(5):1413 View
  91. Cuadra A, Breuch J, Estrada S, Ihim D, Hung I, Askaryar D, Hassanien M, Fessele K, Landay J. Digital Forms for All: A Holistic Multimodal Large Language Model Agent for Health Data Entry. Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies 2024;8(2):1 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Purao S, Meng C. Advances in Conceptual Modeling. View
  2. Monteiro M, Salgado L, Seixas F, Santana R. Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Healthy and Active Aging. View
  3. Braun M, Alt F. Character Computing. View
  4. Sloane E, J. Silva R. Clinical Engineering Handbook. View
  5. Bylieva D, Lobatyuk V, Kuznetsov D, Anosova N. Knowledge in the Information Society. View
  6. Clark L, Ofemile A, Cowan B. Voice Attractiveness. View
  7. Krahmer E, Bosse T, de Bruijn G. The International Encyclopedia of Health Communication. View
  8. Bickmore T. The Handbook on Socially Interactive Agents. View
  9. Ngueajio M, Washington G. HCI International 2022 – Late Breaking Papers: Interacting with eXtended Reality and Artificial Intelligence. View
  10. Karimi P, Ballard K, Vazirani P, Jorigay R, Martin-Hammond A. Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare. View
  11. Simões de Almeida R, Silva T. Exploring the Convergence of Computer and Medical Science Through Cloud Healthcare. View
  12. Bickmore T, Wallace B. Intelligent Systems in Medicine and Health. View
  13. Simões de Almeida R, da Silva T. Digital Therapies in Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Health. View
  14. Omri S, Abdelkader M, Hamdi M, Kim T. Neural Information Processing. View
  15. Ghoul Y, Zitouni N. Artificial Intelligence-based Healthcare Systems. View
  16. Callejas Z, Fernández-Martínez F, Esposito A, Griol D. Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Neural Systems to Data Science. View